Selected glossary from Ngati Porou Foreshore & Seabed Evidence Report by Dr Apirana Mahuika, 2003.

Ahi Ka Roa

This is a reference to “fires of occupation” which have been burning uninterrupted for a very long period of time. Ahi ka roa expresses enduring rights of land or sea.

Mana Moana

Mana Moana, like mana whenua is inherited or is “mana tuku iho”. The rangatira had the same responsibilities regarding fishing grounds which belonged to the whanau/hapu or individual members or groups of the whanau/hapu. Mana Moana rights were whakapapa rights, which includes both the takutai and the whenua takutai or Taiwhenua.

Mana Motuhake/Mana Tuturu

Absolute authority and sovereignty.

Mana Whenua

Mana Whenua means authority over the land. This mana is inherited by whakapapa and therefore by birth.


This custom is still widely practised today by respective whanau/hapu over their foreshore and seabed to stop the exploitation of the food resource and in the process to allow the various species to reproduce.

Ringa Kaha

Ringa Kaha means a “strong hand” and accordingly it refers to the significance of such an attribute or qualification in order to protect the:

  • Taonga Tuku Iho
  • Rangatira and mana of land, fishing grounds, taonga etc
  • Take Tipuna
  • Rangatiratanga
  • Take Tuku
  • Kaitiaki role
  • Ahi Ka Roa
  • Mana Whenua and Mana Moana

Take Tipuna

This refers to ancestral rights. An individual when making a claim or statement may well use take tipuna as evidence or authority to speak, to occupy or use, as in this example:
“Ko taku mana he mana tipuna, a, he take tipuna hoki!”
(My authority is an ancestral one or is an ancestral right).

Take Tuku

This refers to the manner in which succession rights are granted to specific members of whanau/hapu. Tuku also means to “release” or to “give”.

Takutai or Takutai Moana

This refers to both the foreshore and seabed. There is no distinction made between foreshore and seabed in terms of our tikanga.

Taonga Tuku Iho/Mana Tuku Iho

Property or rights which are “inherited by birth” from ancestors.

Whenua Takutai / Tai Whenua

Refers to coastal lands or lands reaching out to the “takutai”.